Studies

APRScience provides collections of Abortion Pill Reversal related research and articles. Our goal is to simplify the process of finding APR literature. We update this page regularly using search queries on PubMed, Google Scholar and other sources. We welcome any feedback that will help improve these collections. Click on a section title to expand/collapse that section.

A. Abortion Pill Reversal Studies
APR case studies and trials

Kirov Georgi S., Alsat-Krenz Senem E., Pester Janet, Hennig Ulrich Hennig, Schneider Prisca, Thevis Mario, Dede Flutura. 2023. Accidental use of Mifegyne in the 3rd trimester. Obstetric Frauenheilk 83: 502-503. https://doi.org/10.1055/a-2010-8490 (German), https://stenoinstitute.org/wp-content/uploads/2024/03/kirov-2023-GF-accidental-mifepristone-3rd-trimester-English.pdf (English).


Turner, Joseph V., Deborah Garratt, Lucas A. McLindon, Anna Barwick, and M. Joy Spark. 2024. Progesterone after Mifepristone: A Pilot Prospective Single Arm Clinical Trial for Women Who Have Changed Their Mind after Commencing Medical Abortion. Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology Research 50 (2): 182–89. https://doi.org/10.1111/jog.15826.


Creinin Mitchell D., Hou Melody Y., Dalton Laura, Steward Rachel, Chen Melissa J. 2020. Mifepristone Antagonization with Progesterone to Prevent Medical Abortion: A Randomized Controlled Trial. Obstetrics and Gynecology 135 (1): 158‐165. https://doi.org/10.1097/AOG.0000000000003620.


Delgado, George, et al. A Case Series Detailing the Successful Reversal of the Effects of Mifepristone Using Progesterone. Issues in Law & Medicine, vol. 33, no. 1, 2018, pp. 21–31. https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/30831017/.


Garratt Deborah, Turner Joseph V. 2017. Progesterone for Preventing Pregnancy Termination After Initiation of Medical Abortion with Mifepristone. The European Journal of Contraception & Reproductive Health Care 22 (6): 472‐475. https://doi.org/10.1080/13625187.2017.1412424.


Delgado George, Davenport Mary L. 2012. Progesterone Use to Reverse the Effects of Mifepristone. Annals of Pharmacotherapy 46 (12): 1723‐1723. https://doi.org/10.1345/aph.1R252. Google Scholar


APR scoping and systematic reviews

DeBeasi, Paul L. C. 2023. Mifepristone Antagonization with Progesterone to Avert Medication Abortion: A Scoping Review. The Linacre Quarterly 90(4): 395-407. https://doi.org/10.1177/00243639231176592


Stifani, Bianca Maria, and Antonella Francheska Lavelanet. 2023. Reversal of Medication Abortion with Progesterone: A Systematic Review. BMJ Sexual & Reproductive Health, October, bmjsrh-2023-201875. https://doi.org/10.1136/bmjsrh-2023-201875.  


Creinin, Mitchell D., and Melissa J. Chen. 2019. Mifepristone Antagonization Requires Real Studies to Evaluate Safety and Efficacy. Contraception 100, no. 6: 427–29. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.contraception.2019.10.016.


Davenport Mary, Delgado George, Harrison Matthew P., Khauv Veronica. 2017. Embryo Survival After Mifepristone: A Systematic Review of the Literature. Issues in Law & Medicine 32 (1): 3‐18. PMID: 29108160. https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/29108160/


Grossman Daniel, White Kari, Harris Lisa, Reeves Matthew, Blumenthal Paul D., Winikoff Beverly, Grimes David A. 2015. Continuing Pregnancy After Mifepristone and ‘Reversal’ of First-Trimester Medical Abortion: A Systematic Review. Contraception 92 (3): 206‐211. https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/26057457/


APR animal studies

Camilleri, Christina, and Stephen Sammut. 2023. Progesterone-Mediated Reversal of Mifepristone-Induced Pregnancy Termination in a Rat Model: An Exploratory Investigation. Scientific Reports 13 (1): 10942. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41598-023-38025-9.


Iwamasa, J. 1991. [The effect of progesterone and RU486 on progesterone production in the ovulatory process of rats]. Nihon Sanka Fujinka Gakkai Zasshi 43 (3): 321–27. https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/2045700/.


Yamabe S., Katayama K., Mochizuki M. 1989. The Effect of RU486 and Progesterone on Luteal Function During Pregnancy. Nihon Naibunpi Gakkai Zasshi 65 (5): 497‐511. https://doi.org/10.1507/endocrine1927.65.5_497.


Baulieu E. E., Segal S. J. 1985. The Antiprogestin Steroid RU 486 and Human Fertility Control. Proceedings of a Conference on the Antiprogestational Compound RU486. Oct 23-25. Bellagio, Italy. Reproductive Biology. Published in the series Reproductive Biology. 1984. Sheldon Segal Series Editor. Plenum Press. https://link.springer.com/book/10.1007/978-1-4684-1242-0.


APR articles

Turner, Joseph Vernon. 2024. Challenging Misleading Information about ‘Abortion Reversal.’ BMJ Sexual & Reproductive Health, June. https://doi.org/10.1136/bmjsrh-2023-202189.


Carroll, Al, Am Strauss, Nm Philipps, Kd Kaczmarczik, Z Shakur, G Ramirez, Tr Klc, Km Tessier, and Cm Boraas. 2023. Concurrent Administration of Depot Medroxyprogesterone Acetate with Mifepristone May Decrease Medication Abortion Efficacy: A Retrospective Cohort Study. Contraception 127 (November): 110192. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.contraception.2023.110192.


Rafferty, Katherine A., Tessa Longbons, Katherine A. Rafferty, and Tessa Longbons. 2023. Medication Abortion and Abortion Pill Reversal: An Exploratory Analysis on the Influence of Others in Women’s Decision-Making. Cureus15 (12). https://doi.org/10.7759/cureus.49973.


Redd, Sara K., Roula AbiSamra, Sarah C. Blake, Kelli A. Komro, Rachel Neal, Whitney S. Rice, and Kelli S. Hall. 2023. Medication Abortion ‘Reversal’ Laws: How Unsound Science Paved the Way for Dangerous Abortion Policy. American Journal of Public Health 113 (2): 202–12. https://doi.org/10.2105/AJPH.2022.307140.


Pruski, Michal, Dominic Whitehouse, and Steven Bow. 2022. The Right to Choose to Abort an Abortion: Should pro-Choice Advocates Support Abortion Pill Reversal? The New Bioethics 28 (3): 252–67. https://doi.org/10.1080/20502877.2022.2073857.


AAPLOG. 2022. The Reversal of the Effects of Mifepristone by Progesterone. Practice Guideline 6. https://aaplog.org/wp-content/uploads/2023/01/PG-6-Reversal-of-the-Effects-of-Mifepristone-by-Progesterone.pdf.


Canadian Physicians for Life. 2021. Abortion Pill Rescue News. Canadian Physicians for Life. https://www.physiciansforlife.ca/abortion-pill-rescue-news/.


AAPLOG. 2021. Progesterone Protocols for The Attempted Reversal of Mifepristone. https://aaplog.org/wp-content/uploads/2021/07/B-Progesterone-Protocols-05.2021-Final.pdf


Charlotte Lozier Institute. 2021. Abortion Pill Reversal: A Record of Safety and Efficacy. https://lozierinstitute.org/abortion-pill-reversal-a-record-of-safety-and-efficacy/.


Butterfield-Kalk, C. R. 2020. Mifepristone Antagonization With Progesterone to Prevent Medical Abortion: A Randomized Controlled Trial. Letter to the Editor. Obstetrics and Gynecology 135 (4): 970. https://www.doi.org/10.1097/AOG.0000000000003786.


Delgado, George, Mary Davenport, and Matthew Harrison. 2020. Mifepristone Antagonization With Progesterone to Prevent Medical Abortion: A Randomized Controlled Trial. Letter to the Editor. Obstetrics and Gynecology 135 (4): 969–70. https://doi.org/10.1097/aog.0000000000003780.


Creinin, Mitchell D., Melody Y. Hou, Laura Dalton, Rachel Steward, and Melissa J. Chen. 2020. “Mifepristone Antagonization With Progesterone to Prevent Medical Abortion: A Randomized Controlled Trial. Letter to the Editor” Obstetrics and Gynecology 135 (4): 970–71. https://doi.org/10.1097/AOG.0000000000003782.


Delgado, George, Mary Davenport, and Matthew Harrison. 2020. Mifepristone Antagonization With Progesterone to Prevent Medical Abortion: A Randomized Controlled Trial. Letter to the Editor. Obstetrics and Gynecology 135 (4): 969–70. https://doi.org/10.1097/aog.0000000000003780.


Valley, Michael T. 2020. Mifepristone Antagonization With Progesterone to Prevent Medical Abortion: A Randomized Controlled Trial. Letter to the Editor. Obstetrics and Gynecology 135 (4): 970. https://doi.org/10.1097/aog.0000000000003781.


AAPLOG. 2019. Researchers Try to Discredit Abortion Pill Reversal; Study Backfires. https://aaplog.org/wp-content/uploads/2019/12/AAPLOG_Responds_to_ACOG_Mifeprex_Study_11Dec19-1.pdf 


Creinin, Mitchell D., and Melissa J. Chen. 2019. Mifepristone Antagonization Requires Real Studies to Evaluate Safety and Efficacy. Contraception 100 (6): 427–29. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.contraception.2019.10.016.


Catholic Medical Association. 2018. New Abortion Pill Reversal Study Shows a 68% Success Rate Authors Include Catholic Medical Association Members. https://www.cathmed.org/wp-content/uploads/2018/04/Press-Release-New-Abortion-Pill-Reversal-Study-.pdf.


Grossman, Daniel, and Kari White. 2018. Abortion ‘Reversal’ – Legislating without Evidence. The New England Journal of Medicine 379 (16): 1491–93. https://www.nejm.org/doi/10.1056/NEJMp1805927.


B. Mifepristone (Mifeprex, RU486) Studies
Mifepristone trials (1980’s & 1990’s)

Somell C., Olund A. 1990. Induction of Abortion in Early Pregnancy with Mifepristone. Gynecologic and Obstetric Investigation 29 (1): 13‐15. https://doi.org/10.1159/000293291


Carol W., Klinger G. 1989. Experiences with the Antigestagen Mifepristone (RU 486) in the Interruption of Early Pregnancy. Zentralblatt Fur Gynakologie 111 (19): 1325‐1328. PMID: 2588863. https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/2588863/.


Swahn M. L., Ugocsai G., Bygdeman M., Kovacs L., Belsey E. M., Van Look P. F. 1989. Effect of Oral Prostaglandin E2 on Uterine Contractility and Outcome of Treatment in Women Receiving RU 486 (Mifepristone) for Termination of Early Pregnancy. Human Reproduction (Oxford, England) 4 (1): 21‐28. https://doi.org/10.1093/oxfordjournals.humrep.a136838.


Ylikorkala O., Alfthan H., Kääriäinen M., Rapeli T., Lähteenmäki P. 1989. Outpatient Therapeutic Abortion with Mifepristone. Obstetrics and Gynecology 74 (4): 653‐657. https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/2797643/.


Zheng S. R. 1989. RU 486 (Mifepristone): Clinical Trials in China. Acta Obstetricia Et Gynecologica Scandinavica 149: 19‐23. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1600-0412.1989.tb08044.x.


Birgerson Lars, Odlind Viveca. 1988. The Antiprogestational Agent RU 486 as an Abortifacient in Early Human Pregnancy: A Comparison of Three Dose Regimens. Contraception 38 (4): 391‐400. https://doi.org/10.1016/0010-7824(88)90080-7.


Maria B., Chaneac M., Stampf F., Ulmann A. 1988. Early Pregnancy Interruption Using an Antiprogesterone Steroid: Mifepristone (RU 486). Journal De Gynecologie, Obstetrique Et Biologie De La Reproduction 17 (8): 1089‐1094. https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/3235788/.


Maria B., Stampf F., Goepp A., Ulmann A. 1988. Termination of Early Pregnancy by a Single Dose of Mifepristone (RU 486), a Progesterone Antagonist. European Journal of Obstetrics, Gynecology, and Reproductive Biology 28 (3): 249‐255. https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/3208966/.


Grimes D. A., Mishell D. R., Shoupe D., Lacarra M. 1988. Early Abortion with a Single Dose of the Antiprogestin RU-486. American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology 158 (6 Pt 1): 1307‐1312. https://doi.org/10.1016/0002-9378(88)90361-4.


Cameron I. T., Michie A. F., Baird D. T. 1986. Therapeutic Abortion in Early Pregnancy with Antiprogestogen RU486 Alone or in Combination with Prostaglandin Analogue (Gemeprost). Contraception 34 (5): 459‐468. https://doi.org/10.1016/0010-7824(86)90055-7.


Elia David. 1985. Clinical Study of RU 486 in Early Pregnancy. In The Antiprogestin Steroid RU 486 and Human Fertility Control, edited by Baulieu Etienne-Emile, Segal Sheldon J., 211‐220. Boston, MA: Springer US. https://link.springer.com/chapter/10.1007/978-1-4684-1242-0_17.


Sitruk-Ware R., Billaud L., Mowszowicz I., Yaneva H., Mauvais-Jarvis P., Bardin C. W., Spitz I. M. 1985. The Use of Ru 486 as an Abortifacient in Early Pregnancy. In The Antiprogestin Steroid RU 486 and Human Fertility Control, edited by Baulieu Etienne-Emile, Segal Sheldon J., 243‐248. Boston, MA: Springer US. https://link.springer.com/chapter/10.1007/978-1-4684-1242-0_20.


Herrmann W. L., Schindler A. M., Wyss R., Bischof P. 1985. Effects of the Antiprogesterone RU 486 in Early Pregnancy and During the Menstrual Cycle. In The Antiprogestin Steroid RU 486 and Human Fertility Control, edited by Baulieu Etienne-Emile, Segal Sheldon J., 179‐198. Boston, MA: Springer US. https://link.springer.com/chapter/10.1007/978-1-4684-1242-0_15.


Swahn M. L., Cekan S., Wang G., Lundstrom V., Bygdeman M. 1985. Pharmacokinetic and Clinical Studies of Ru 486 for Fertility Regulation. In The Antiprogestin Steroid RU 486 and Human Fertility Control, edited by Baulieu Etienne-Emile, Segal Sheldon J., 249‐258. Boston, MA: Springer US. https://link.springer.com/chapter/10.1007/978-1-4684-1242-0_21


Vervest H. A., Haspels A. A. 1985. Preliminary Results with the Antiprogestational Compound RU-486 (Mifepristone) for Interruption of Early Pregnancy. Fertility and Sterility 44 (5): 627‐632. https://doi.org/10.1016/s0015-0282(16)48978-8.


Kovacs L., Sas M., Resch B. A., Ugocsai G., Swahn M. L., Bygdeman M., Rowe P. J. 1984. Termination of Very Early Pregnancy by RU 486 — An Antiprogestational Compound. Contraception 29 (5): 399‐410. https://doi.org/10.1016/0010-7824(84)90014-3.


Mifepristone and medication abortion

FDA. 2023. Mifeprex (Mifepristone) Information. https://www.fda.gov/drugs/postmarket-drug-safety-information-patients-and-providers/mifeprex-mifepristone-information.


Critchley, H O D, and R R Chodankar. 2020. 90 YEARS OF PROGESTERONE: Selective Progesterone Receptor Modulators in Gynaecological Therapies. Journal of Molecular Endocrinology 65 (1): T15–33. https://doi.org/10.1530/JME-19-0238.


AAPLOG. 2020. Medication Abortion. https://aaplog.org/wp-content/uploads/2023/01/PG-8-Medication-Abortion.pdf.


Kapp, Nathalie, Elisabeth Eckersberger, Antonella Lavelanet, and Maria Isabel Rodriguez. 2019. Medical Abortion in the Late First Trimester: A Systematic Review. Contraception 99 (2): 77–86. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.contraception.2018.11.002.


Camilleri, Christina, Rebecca M. Beiter, Lisett Puentes, Paula Aracena-Sherck, and Stephen Sammut. 2019. Biological, Behavioral and Physiological Consequences of Drug-Induced Pregnancy Termination at First-Trimester Human Equivalent in an Animal Model. Frontiers in Neuroscience 13 (May): 544. https://doi.org/10.3389/fnins.2019.00544.


FDA. 2017. Cytotec misoprostol tablets. https://www.accessdata.fda.gov/drugsatfda_docs/label/2018/019268s051lbl.pdf.


FDA. 2016. MIFEPREX (mifepristone) Medication Guide. https://www.accessdata.fda.gov/drugsatfda_docs/label/2016/020687s020lbl.pdf.


Bernard, N., E. Elefant, P. Carlier, M. Tebacher, C. E. Barjhoux, M. A. Bos-Thompson, E. Amar, J. Descotes, and T. Vial. 2013. Continuation of Pregnancy after First-Trimester Exposure to Mifepristone: An Observational Prospective StudyBJOG: An International Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology 120 (5): 568–74. https://doi.org/10.1111/1471-0528.12147.


Cadepond, PhD, F., A. Ulmann, Md, PhD, and E.-E. Baulieu, Md, PhD. 1997. RU486 (MIFEPRISTONE): Mechanisms of Action and Clinical Uses. Annual Review of Medicine 48 (1): 129–56. https://doi.org/10.1146/annurev.med.48.1.129.


Dibbs, Khlaed I., Yoel Sadovsky, Xue-Jun Li, Samuel S. Koide, Stuart Adler, and Anna-Riitta Fuchs. 1995. Estrogenic Activity of RU 486 (Mifepristone) in Rat Uterus and Cultured Uterine Myocytes. American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology 173 (1): 134–40. https://doi.org/10.1016/0002-9378(95)90181-7.


Greenhouse, Steven. 1989. A New Pill, a Fierce Battle. The New York Times Magazine, February, 22–24, 26.. https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/11646197/.


Mifepristone safety studies

Studnicki, J., T. Longbons, D. J. Harrison, I. Skop, C. Cirucci, D. C. Reardon, C. Craver, J. W. Fisher, and M. Tsulukidze. 2022. A Post Hoc Exploratory Analysis: Induced Abortion Complications Mistaken for Miscarriage in the Emergency Room Are a Risk Factor for Hospitalization. Health Services Research and Managerial Epidemiology9: 23333928221103107. https://assaultonscience.org/wp-content/uploads/sites/18/2023/11/studnicki-et-al-2022-a-post-hoc-exploratory-analysis-induced-abortion-complications-mistaken-for-miscarriage-in-the.pdf.


Ipas. 2022. Risk of Fetal Malformations. https://www.ipas.org/clinical-update/english/recommendations-for-abortion-before-13-weeks-gestation/medical-abortion/risk-of-fetal-malformations/.


FDA. 2022. Mifepristone U.S. Post-Marketing Adverse Events Summary through 12/31/2022. https://www.fda.gov/media/164331/download.


Whitehouse, Katherine C., Bianca M. Stifani, James M.N. Duffy, Caron R. Kim, Mitchell D. Creinin, Teresa DePiñeres, Beverly Winikoff, et al. 2021. Standardizing Abortion Research Outcomes (STAR): Results from an International Consensus Development Study. Contraception 104 (5): 484–91. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.contraception.2021.07.004.


Studnicki, James, et al. A Longitudinal Cohort Study of Emergency Room Utilization Following Mifepristone Chemical and Surgical Abortions, 1999-2015. Health Services Research and Managerial Epidemiology, vol. 8, 2021. https://assaultonscience.org/wp-content/uploads/sites/18/2023/11/studnicki-et-al-2021-a-longitudinal-cohort-study-of-emergency-room-utilization-following-mifepristone-chemical-and.pdf


Aultman Kathi, Cirucci Christina A., Harrison Donna J., Beran Benjamin D., Lockwood Michael D., Seiler Sigmund. 2021. Deaths and Severe Adverse Events After the Use of Mifepristone as an Abortifacient from September 2000 to February 2019. Issues in Law & Medicine 36 (1): 3‐26. https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/33939340/.


Skop, Ingrid 2019. Medical Abortion: What Physicians Need to Know. Journal of American Physicians and Surgeons 24 (4): 109–113. https://www.jpands.org/vol24no4/skop.pdf.


Upadhyay, Ushma D., Sheila Desai, Vera Zlidar, Tracy A. Weitz, Daniel Grossman, Patricia Anderson, and Diana Taylor. 2015. Incidence of Emergency Department Visits and Complications After Abortion. Obstetrics & Gynecology125 (1): 175–83. https://doi.org/10.1097/AOG.0000000000000603.


Coleman, P. K., D. C. Reardon, and B. C. Calhoun. 2013. Reproductive History Patterns and Long-Term Mortality Rates: A Danish, Population-Based Record Linkage Study. The European Journal of Public Health 23 (4): 569–74. https://doi.org/10.1093/eurpub/cks107.


Reardon, David C., and Priscilla K. Coleman. 2012. Short and Long Term Mortality Rates Associated with First Pregnancy Outcome: Population Register Based Study for Denmark 1980–2004. Medical Science Monitor 18 (9): PH71–76. https://doi.org/10.12659/MSM.883338.


Miech, Ralph P. 2005. Pathophysiology of Mifepristone-Induced Septic Shock Due to Clostridium Sordellii. Annals of Pharmacotherapy 39 (9): 1483–88. https://doi.org/10.1345/aph.1G189.


Gissler, Mika, Cynthia Berg, Marie-Hélène Bouvier-Colle, and Pierre Buekens. 2005. Injury Deaths, Suicides and Homicides Associated with Pregnancy, Finland 1987–2000. European Journal of Public Health 15 (5): 459–63. https://doi.org/10.1093/eurpub/cki042.


Gissler, Mika, Cynthia Berg, Marie-Hélène Bouvier-Colle, and Pierre Buekens. 2004. Pregnancy-Associated Mortality after Birth, Spontaneous Abortion, or Induced Abortion in Finland, 1987-2000. American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology 190 (2): 422–27. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ajog.2003.08.044.


Sitruk-Ware, Regine, and Irving M Spitz. 2003. Pharmacological Properties of Mifepristone: Toxicology and Safety in Animal and Human Studies. Contraception 68 (6): 409–20. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0010-7824(03)00171-9.


Reardon, David C., Philip G. Ney, Fritz Scheuren, Jesse Cougle, Priscilla K. Coleman, and Thomas W. Strahan. 2002. Deaths Associated with Pregnancy Outcome: A Record Linkage Study of Low Income Women. Southern Medical Journal 95 (8): 834–41. https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/12190217/.


Niinimäki, Maarit, et al. Immediate Complications After Medical Compared With Surgical Termination of Pregnancy. Obstetrics & Gynecology, vol. 114, no. 4, Oct. 2009, pp. 795–804. DOI.org (Crossref), https://doi.org/10.1097/AOG.0b013e3181b5ccf9


C. Progesterone Studies
Progesterone history and action

NAPRO Technology. 2024. Progesterone Support in Pregnancy. https://naprotechnology.com/progesterone/.


Di Renzo Gian Carlo, Tosto Valentina, Tsibizova Valentina. 2020. Progesterone: History, Facts, and Artifacts. Best Practice & Research Clinical Obstetrics & Gynaecology, Progesterone In Obstetrics And Gynaecology 69 (November): 2‐12. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.bpobgyn.2020.07.012.


Critchley, H O D, and R R Chodankar. 2020. 90 YEARS OF PROGESTERONE: Selective Progesterone Receptor Modulators in Gynaecological Therapies. Journal of Molecular Endocrinology 65 (1): T15–33. https://doi.org/10.1530/JME-19-0238.


Piette, P. 2018. The History of Natural Progesterone, the Never-Ending Story. Climacteric: The Journal of the International Menopause Society 21 (4): 308–14. https://doi.org/10.1080/13697137.2018.1462792


Taraborrelli, Stefania. 2015. Physiology, Production and Action of Progesterone. Acta Obstetricia Et Gynecologica Scandinavica 94 Suppl 161 (November): 8–16. https://doi.org/10.1111/aogs.12771


FDA. 2013. Crinone® 4% and Crinone® 8%. https://www.accessdata.fda.gov/drugsatfda_docs/label/2013/020701s026lbl.pdf.


Scarpin Katherine M., Graham J. Dinny, Mote Patricia A., Clarke Christine L. 2009. Progesterone Action in Human Tissues: Regulation by Progesterone Receptor (Pr) Isoform Expression, Nuclear Positioning and Coregulator Expression. Nuclear Receptor Signaling 7 (December): e009. https://doi.org/10.1621/nrs.07009


Csapo, A I, and C A Pinto-Dantas. 1965. The Effect of Progesterone on the Human Uterus. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 54 (4): 1069–76. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC219795/.


Progesterone safety studies

Diep, Caroline H., Laura J. Mauro, and Carol A. Lange. 2023. Navigating a Plethora of Progesterone Receptors: Comments on the Safety/Risk of Progesterone Supplementation in Women with a History of Breast Cancer or at High-Risk for Developing Breast Cancer. Steroids 200 (December): 109329. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.steroids.2023.109329


Piette, Paul C. M. 2020. The Pharmacodynamics and Safety of Progesterone. Best Practice & Research. Clinical Obstetrics & Gynaecology 69 (November): 13–29. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.bpobgyn.2020.06.002


Ahn, Ki Hoon, Na-Young Bae, Soon-Cheol Hong, Ji-Sung Lee, Eun Hee Lee, Hee-Jung Jee, Geum-Joon Cho, Min-Jeong Oh, and Hai-Joong Kim. 2017. The Safety of Progestogen in the Prevention of Preterm Birth: Meta-Analysis of Neonatal Mortality. Journal of Perinatal Medicine 45 (1): 11–20. https://doi.org/10.1515/jpm-2015-0317


Lieberman, Allan, and Luke Curtis. 2017. In Defense of Progesterone: A Review of the Literature. Alternative Therapies in Health and Medicine 23 (6): 24–32. https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/29055286/.


Goletiani, Nathalie V., Diana R. Keith, and Sara J. Gorsky. 2007. Progesterone: Review of Safety for Clinical Studies. Experimental and Clinical Psychopharmacology 15 (5): 427–44. https://doi.org/10.1037/1064-1297.15.5.427


Progesterone use during pregnancy

NICE. 2023. Ectopic Pregnancy and Miscarriage: Diagnosis and Initial Management. https://www.nice.org.uk/guidance/ng126.


Conde-Agudelo, Agustin, and Roberto Romero. 2022. Does Vaginal Progesterone Prevent Recurrent Preterm Birth in Women with a Singleton Gestation and a History of Spontaneous Preterm Birth? Evidence from a Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis. American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology 227 (3): 440-461.e2. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ajog.2022.04.023


Devall, Adam J., Argyro Papadopoulou, Marcelina Podesek, David M. Haas, Malcolm J. Price, Arri Coomarasamy, and Ioannis D. Gallos. 2021. Progestogens for Preventing Miscarriage: A Network Meta‐analysis. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, no. 4. https://doi.org/10.1002/14651858.CD013792.pub2


Di Renzo Gian Carlo, Tosto Valentina, Tsibizova Valentina, Fonseca Eduardo. 2021. Prevention of Preterm Birth with Progesterone. Journal of Clinical Medicine 10 (19): 4511. https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm10194511.


Practice Committees of the American Society for Reproductive Medicine and the Society for Reproductive Endocrinology and Infertility. 2021. Diagnosis and Treatment of Luteal Phase Deficiency: A Committee OpinionFertility and Sterility 115 (6): 1416–23. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.fertnstert.2021.02.010


Labarta, Elena, and Cristina Rodríguez. 2020. Progesterone Use in Assisted Reproductive Technology. Best Practice & Research. Clinical Obstetrics & Gynaecology 69 (November): 74–84. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.bpobgyn.2020.05.005


Ali, Simak, Kirsty Balachandran, and Bert O’Malley. 2020. 90 Years of Progesterone: Ninety Years of Progesterone: The ‘Other’ Ovarian Hormone. Journal of Molecular Endocrinology 65 (1): E1–4. https://doi.org/10.1530/JME-20-0145.


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